1916 — Manfred von Richthofen makes his first kill as a pilot

Manfred von Richtofen won his first aerial combat with Jasta 2 in the skies over Cambrai, France, on 17 September, 1916. Between that day and his death in 1918, he shot down another 79 aircraft – and that figure includes only confirmed kills. If unconfirmed kills are included, his tally may have exceeded 100 kills.

Nor was von Richtofen merely a force to be reckoned with on his own – as leader of the Flying Circus, he and his men killed a total of a total of 644 enemy aircraft. It was at this time that he became known as the Red Baron.

He was eventually shot down himself on April 21, 1918, although who fired the fatal shots has never been confirmed.

Referenced in:
Red Baron/Blue Max — Iced Earth

1815 – Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo

So much in life depends on the slightest chances, and nowhere moreso than in war. The Duke of Wellington, who commanded the winning forces at Waterloo, later stated that the battle was “the nearest-run thing you ever saw in your life.

Napoleon commanded a French army 69,000 strong, while Wellington led a force consisting of 24,000 were British troops, with another 6,000 from the King’s German Legion, 17,000 Dutch troops, 11,000 from Hanover, 6,000 from Brunswick, and 3,000 from Nassau. Compared to Napoleon’s more disciplined and experienced force, Wellington’s was much less organised and coherent, especially the Prussian forces that were in the midst of a reorganisation.

But in the event, and despite the inevitable chaos and mischance of battle, the Anglo-Prussian Alliance was victorious. Defeat at Waterloo was the final reverse for Napoleon. From ruling most of Europe, he was reduced to a life lived in exile in St Helena, where he died six years later.

Referenced in:

Waterloo – ABBA
Waterloo – Iced Earth
Huogoumont – Judicator
Slattery’s Mounted Fut – Percy French
Lydia the Tattooed Lady – Groucho Marx