Immanuel Kant is one of the most important figures in modern philosophy. His best known work, the “Critique of Pure Reason”, was a landmark in the development of philosophy, proposing as it did that the features of the external world must logically conform to how our brains are structured to perceive them (I think I got that right).
Kant was born in Königsberg, the capital of Prussia (the city today called Kaliningrad), and lived to be 79. Aside from the Critique, he also wrote widely, contributing to such fields as ethics, aesthetics, teleology, moral philosophy and many more besides. His influence was so profound that he was regarded as the father of German Idealism in philosophy, a loose movement including such thinkers as Hegel, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer and Schelling.